Syria Archive


MECC opposes all foreign intervention: U.S., NATO, Saudi, Qatar, Russia, Iran, Islamic, etc. We provide here a very wide range of comments. We are not endorsing any of the positions here.

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2017


Former U.S. Intelligence Agents Try to Explain Away Latest Assad Chemical Atrocity

White Helmets Responding to the "False Flag" Doubters

The Khan Sheikhoun Chemical Attack — Who Bombed What and When? - Christian Triebert

Don't Be Fooled by Gabbard's Bill. It's Really "Crush the White Helmets"

The Khan Sheikhoun Chemical Attack, The Evidence So Far Eliot Higgins (Bellingcat)

The Amnesty Report on Mass Hangings in Syria       Answering British Ambassador Ford

Poem Read for Prisoners in Syria at Event on Jan. 15

The Assads and the Palestinians Over the Years

2016


The Graffiti Kids Who Sparked the Syria War Mark McKinnon, Globe and Mail

The Assads and the Palestinians Over the Years Stanley Heller 12/25

Political Defamation Campaign Targets Rescue Workers in Syria - Franklin Lamb - 10/14

The Bogus Tump/"Anti-Imperialist" Idea that Obama Supports ISIS

Review of Janine di Giovanni’s: The Morning They Came for Us - New York Times

How the Syrian Revolution has Transformed Me - Budour Hassan - May 19

Barrel Bombs and Siege on Another Palestinian Community - Lizzie Dearden, the Guardian

Syria in Flames - Ella Wind interviews "Burning Country"authors - Ella Wind -The Brooklyn Rail - Ella Wind

Robert Fisk Hit Piece on Charles Lister

Al Qaeda Is About to Establish an Emirate in Northern Syria - Charles Lister - Foreign Policy (With Advice for "the West")

CODEPINK Statement Opposes U.S. Troops in Syria - and Bloody Assad Regime and IS

What the United States is Really Doing in Syria - Tony Badran - Tablet - March 2

Challenging the Nation State in Syria - written in Feb., published May 12

Aleppo Under Tremendous Bombardment

Robert Fisk Praises "out-gunned and out-manned" Assad Army and Excuses regime Torture - March 13

Report Says 11.5% of Syria Population Killled - Much Worse Than Previous Reports - the Guardian

Madaya Again Starving - Feb. 9

Siege Watch - The Syria Institute

America's Syria Shame - Roger Cohen - NYT

How Assad's Prisoners Die - Foreign Policy

Out of Sight, Out of Mind: Deaths in Detention in the Syrian Arab Republic UN Report

Video - Syria: 'Burning Country' book launch at Amnesty International UK

How the U.N. Let Assad Edit the Truth of Syria’s War - Roy Gutman - Foreign Policy

US and Jordan demand Southern Front rebels stop fighting Assad, cut off “support” - Michael Karadjis

Air Drops Needed - Starvation in Deir Ezzor

Delivering aid should not need Syrian regime's approval, says MP - January 22, 2016

Air Force secretary: U.S. ready to airdrop aid for Syria if asked Marine Corps Times

Says CIA's Syrian Allies Working with Al-Qaeda Daily Beast

Yassin al-Haj Saleh: “Syria is a unique symbol of injustice, apathy and amnesia”

Airdrops Seen as Too Risky says NY Congressman

112 Syrian Notables Appeal to U.N. to Stop Doing Assad Bidding

Bild Exposes Regime Propaganada on Madaya - Fake Well-Fed People Who Were Never in Madaya

What is at Issue in the Siege of Madaya, Mass Starvation or a Few Fake Pics? - Michael Karadjis

Glimpses of Deprivation Anne Barnard - New York Times

Iran and Saudi Arabia, the Conflict Between the Counter-Revolutionary Forces - Joseph Daher

Nobel Prize Winner Says Warfare in Syria Brought by Outsiders, Absolves Assad

Graphic AP Reports Shows Terrible Photos of People Starving Due to Syria Sieges

2015


Syria Feature: 1 Convicted, 5 Acquitted in “Sarin” Case in Turkey - Scott Lucas

Syrian Family in Connecticut...Also See Wael Faraj on The Struggle #619

Syria Solidarity UK

As another activist is murdered, the least we owe 'Raqqa is Being Slaughtered Silently' is our attention Dec. 17 2015 Kyle Orton

U.N. Security Council Resolution on Syria Dec. 22

No need for conspiracy: US seeks ‘regime preservation’ in Syria

Syria's Stalingrad - Thanassis Cambanis - Foreign Policy

A Call for Proof on Syria-Sarin Attack by Veteran Intelligence Professionals for Sanity,

Seymour Hersh's bizarre new conspiracy theory about the US and Syria, explained - Max Fischer - Vox

Self-Delusion at the U.N. Over Syria Dec. 21

Meet the Man Showing the World What Airstrikes are Doing in Syria - Foreign Policy

Military to Military - Seymour M. Hersh on US intelligence sharing in the Syrian war
- Dec. 21 (January 2016 print edition London Review Books)

50 Killed in Russian Bombing of Idlib

Assad's Troops are Raping Children to Silence Dissent - Khaled Rawas - Newsweek - Nov. 12

What really happened to the U.S. train-and-equip program in Syria? Roy Gutman - McClatchy

The Story Behind the Caesar Photos - Syria Deeply

Kerry - US Not Seeking Regime Change

Letters to Prime Minister Trudeau: Bring Attention to Our Sister Razan Zaitouneh

Armchair War-Gaming Isn't Helping Syrians

"Hands Off Syria" Applies to Russia Too" - Petition

"CIA Rebels" Were Making Gains Associated Press

Stop the War(UK)Statement on Syria

Torturing to Kill Inside Syria's Death Machine The Guardian (UK) Oct 1

Syria’s ‘moderates’ have disappeared... and there are no good guys Robert Fisk

We Need to Oppose All Foreign Intervention

On the Syrian Democratic and Revolutionary Opposition

Patrick Cockburn "Syria crisis: Let's welcome Russia's entry into this war"

Patrick Cockburn Our Folly Helped Create the Syria Horrors - part 1 of 2 articles

Elements of Oppression - Joseph Daher on Syria

Who Has the U.S. Bombed for Syria? - Michael Karadjis -(You may be surprised)

Patrick Cockburn - Admits Assad Atrocities, but says West Should Ally with Assad

In a "The Nation" audio interview Stephen Cohen Says Russia was "Right" about the "Arab Spring"

Climate Change and the War in Syria - a 5 Minute Cartoon Explanation

The Main Reason for the Millions of Refugees from Syria is not the Islamic State - Joseph Daher - Syria Freedom Forever

Syria, Iran, ISIS, In Dialogue with Yassin al-Haj Saleh

U.S. Won't Work with Ahrar Al-Sham New York Times

Chemical Weapons, Torture, Mass Killings - Bild Am Sontag

Ahrar al-Sham Co-Operates with al Nusra, Founded by bin Laden Admirer

The deadly consequences of mislabeling Syria’s revolutionaries
Washington Post posts op-ed by Labib Al Nahhas, head of foreign political relations for Ahrar al-Sham

Conditions for Palestinians in Gaza Get Even Worse

The Dangerous Illusion of Calling for a No-Fly Zone - Mark Boothroyd

The "Fantasy" of Israeli Governtment Support for al-Nusra - Michael Karadjis - June 29

Former CIA Deputy Director Warns Israel of Deals with Al-Qaeda - Jerusalem Post

Damascus suburb hit by poison gas remains cut off, besieged McClatchy June 12

Documenting Evil: Assad's Hospitals of Horror - Adam Ciralsky - Vanity Fair

Inside an undercover network trying to expose Islamic State’s atrocities Liz Sly - Washington Post

ISIS Blows Up Torture Prison and Makes Political Gains Anne Barnard and Tom Arango - NYT

Why Zaran Alloush Stands Accused Free #Douma4

Interview with Zahran Alloush - Denies Kidnapping of Razan Zaitouneh - May 15

No Fly Zone a Dangerous Illusion - Mark Boothroyd - June 3

Pro-Assad Petition by West Bank Palestinians and Others

UN Report - Chemical Attack in al-Ghouta was from Sarin from Assad Forces Arsenal Reuters

2,000 Assad Barrel Bombs - Bente Scheller

These ISIS Targets Obama Wouldn't Bomb - Michael Weiss - The Daily Beast
“We were rebuffed for the astounding reason that aiding the rebels in Aleppo would hurt Assad, which would anger the Iranians, who might then turn up the heat on U.S. troops in Iraq."

Yarmouk casualties rise as UN funds run out Maureen Claire Murphy - May 27

Residents protest Syrian diplomat’s Yarmouk “terrorists” claim - Maureen Claire Murphy

Syria's Kurdish Revolution

Who's Lying about Syria's Chrisian Massacre - Critique of Patrick Cockburn

The Gang of Girls That Risks Their Lives to Report on Syria

Says Assad Forces LET Islamic State into Yarmouk Kassem Eid - Foreign Policy magazine

Why Bashar Assad Won’t Fight ISIS - Aryan Baker - Time Magazine

TSVN Interview Syria: Despite the Atrocities, the Revolution is Still Alive - Yasser Munif

Anti-Authoritarian Analysis of Syria's Uprising and Civil War - February

The Regime is Responsible for the Crisis: And No One is Talking About It - Celine Cantat - March 5

About Those Chlorine Gas Attacks in Syria - Rick Sterling

Humanitarians for War on Syria - Rick Sterling

Images of Syrian torture on display at UN: 'It is imperative we do not look away

Syria Growing Dark - NYT

Syria and the Left, An Interview with Yassin Al-Haq Saleh

Revolution, Reaction and Imperialism in Syria - Joseph Daher


2014


Nir Rosen and Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue Propose Local Ceasefires

U.S. Bombing Has Helped ISIS Recuritment and the Assad Regime Yaseer Munif - Audio interview -

Says "The Syrian conflict is no longer in the hands of the Syrians themselves" - As'ad AbuKhalil

Article in "The National" Critical of Patrick Cockburn's View of Syria - Muhammad Idrees Ahmad

America's War in Syria is a Total Disaster Ryan Cooper - The Week - Sept. 24

Kurds Resist Islamic State Butchers Socialist Reisistance website

Statement of the Revolutionary Left Movement in Syria Condemning U.S. Bombing in Syria - Sept 23

"Moderate" Rebels Make a Deal with ISIS
- With Whom Will Obama Align - "Moderate" Al Qaeda, "Moderate" ISIS?

How Saudi Arabia Helped ISIS Take Over the North

Sunni Fighers Gain as They Battle 2 Governments - How They Took Minbej - Thanassis Cambanis New York Times

A Dangerous Method: Syria, Sy Hersh, and the Art of Mass-crime Revisionism - Muhammad Idrees Ahmad, Los Angeles Times

Former Ambassador to Syria Says, "Arm Syria's Opposition"

In the Syrian Prison: Hunger to the Point of Disconnect International Sociological Assocation

Seeing Women in Revolutionary Syria

There is No Left Side Anywhere in Syria - As'ad AbuKhalil

What to Do About Syria - Scott Long

Against fascism, both the Assadist and Islamist versions - Yassin al-Haj Saleh

Mairead Maguire Visits Latakia

UN Independent Commission Report on Chemicals Used in Syria

Turkey Not Invovled in Poison Gas Attack - Elliot Higgins and Dan Kaszeta - The Guardian

Says New Hersh Revelations Misleading

Hersh Says Obama Pulled Back From Syria Attack Because British Told Him Sarin Charges False

Shelling and Siege of Yarmouk Resumes - March 18 - Nidal Bitari

How the Uprising Was Hijacked - Patrick Cockburn

UNRWA Iconic Photo of Yarmouk Desperation Featured on Huge Screen in New York Times

Says Syrian Government Delivers Humanitarian Aid to Yarmouk Daily - Syria Solidarity Movement

Steven Hawking - "Syria's War Must End"

Washington Post Wants U.S. to Threaten War

Sectarian Massacre of Alawii in Hama

Feb. 12 new film about Yarmouk Youth

Lifting the Siege of Yarmouk - Franklin Lamb

Trickle of Aid to Yarmouk - Electronic Intifada

Purported Deal on Yarmouk - Ma'an News

Says PFLP Stands with Syria (Assad)

Feb. 10 Video interview with Nidal Bitari - Palestine Studies Video

Yarmouk Camp and the Syrian Uprising - Nidal Bitari - Journal of Palestine Studies

Politics of Starvation in Syria - Shia are Starving, Too- Patick Cockburn

Code Pink Press Confernce in Geneva outside the Big Power Meeting on Syria

Syria report: One is reminded of Nazi Germany - Robert Fisk

An Islamic Front Leader Says He's the Better Al-Qaeda

The Siege of Yarmouk Camp - Franklin Lamb

Almost Nothing Made it Into Yarmouk Camp Today - Nidal Bitari -audio podcast

The Siege of Yarmouk - Franklin Lamb

Use Force to End Syria Sieges - Danny Postel and Nader Hashemi - NYT February 10

While You Were Neutal About Yarmouk - Talal Alyan

Statement: U.S. Palestinian Community Network

U.N Security Council Resolution #2139 Demands End to "aerial bombardment, such as the use of barrel bombs"

Statement: Al-Awda Stands By Yarmouk Camp, Through Thick and Thin (from an email)

Claim on Iranian TV "Palestinian factions within the Yarmouk district have allowed the foreign-backed extremists of Jabhat al Nusra"

"The administration account was not even close to reality." Theodore Postol in McClatchy DC report

The Free World vs. The Syrian Dream of Freedom

2013

Responsibility to Protect Refugees in Yarmouk - Al Akhbar English

Hunger Drives Man to Suicide

NYT Backs Off Its Syria-Sarin Analysis - Robert Parry

Follow Up Report on Chemical Massacre

New York Times Climbs Down on Claim that Gas Missiles Came From Assad Stronghold

Lead U.N. Investigator Says Gas Rocket Couldn't Have Gone 9 Kilometers Robert Parry

Big Humanitarian Obama Administration Has Allowed ... 90 Syrian Refugees to Come to the U.S.

Regime Barrel Bombs Kill 87 Children in Aleppo Dec. 23

Hersh's Chemical Misfires Foreign Policy magazine

Sensational Charges Whose Sarin? - Seymour Hersh, Dec. 6, 2013

Interview with Seymour Hersh - Democracy Now! - December 6, 2013

"She Was My Mandela" Famous Syrian Acitivist Abducted - Time Magazine

Max Blumenthal writer of "Goliath" talking about Syria

Who is Mother Agnes? - Stanley Heller

Mother Agnes: Syria's 'detective' nun who says gas attack film faked - BBC

Critique of Asa Winstanley's Piece "The Revolution That Never Was" - Darth Nader blog

There Was No Syrian Revolution- Asa Winstanley

Rocket Man - A Portrait of Eliot Higgins by Patrick Radden Keefe - November 25 issue of The New Yorker

We Stand Behind the Syrian People's Revolution - No to Foreign Intervention Middle Eastern Left Parties

Are Greek Neo-Nazis Fighting for Assad in Syria? - Brian Whelan - Vice

How Cuba and Venezuela Scabbed on the Syrian Revolution Democratic Revolution, Syrian Style

Syrian Group Criticizes Tariq Ali

MENA - Anti-Imperialist, Anti-Assad ...........NYC Program Nov. 17

Obama's Uncertain Path in Syria - New York Times, Oct. 23

A Response from the Syrian Left to Slavoj Zizek October 18

1,500 Rebels Beingn Trained by U.S. Marines in Saudi Arabia - Janes Defense Weekly

Conflicts of Interest in the Syria Debate - Study Public Accountability Initiative

TSVN Interview with Syrian Palestinian about the Disaster within the Catastrophe

The Latakia Massacre - Human Rights Watch

Syrian Islamist Rebels Accused of Major Massacre

Yarmouk Refugee Camp and the Syria Uprising, A View from Within - Nidal Bitari

Says the Revolution Faces Several Different Counter-Revolutionary Forces
(Assad/Russia, Saudis, US/Israel)
- Gilbert Achcar

1597 Palestinians Killed Since Start of Revolution in Syria

Why Didn't Obama Bomb Syria? - A Partial Critique of Karadjis - Stanley Heller

Let's See What Evidence You Actually Have Veteran Intelligence Professionals for Sanity, Oct. 3

Dispelling Illusions About Syria- Michael Karadjis

Statement from Mint Press News Alleging Pressure on Dale Gavlak

Retraction on Anti-War.Com for Printing Mint Article on Chemical Attack in Syria

Syrian Islamists Denounce Syrian National Congress

Syria, Sarin, and Casus Belli - Michael Parenti

The Disaster Inside the Catastrophe: The Plight of Syrian Palestinians

Revolutionary Left Statement on Events in Rakka

The Strategy Has Backfired - Alstair Cooke - Guardian

Defeating the Enemy - Jadailiyya

You Can't Be Anti-war and Pro-Dictator - Debate within the Left - Eric Ruder

Text of U.N. Report on Deaths from Chemicals in Syria - Released 9/16/2013

Over 150 Jews Defy AIPAC and Say "No War on Syria"

What Should We Do to Stop Syria Attack?

Whatever the Evidence, the U.S. Government Has No Moral Standing to Point Fingers or Drop Bombs

Egypt's Syrian Scapegoats - Sherif Khaddous - The Nation

The Siege of the Yarmouk Palestinian Camp

CIA Helps in Arms Airlift from Arab Countries to Syrian Rebels New York Times March 24

Syrian Civil Resistance - Syria Untold

Max Blumenthal in Zaatari Camp - The Nation

Veteran Intelligence Professionals for Sanity Warn Obama on Syria -

Back from Two Months in the Liberated Area of Syria

A Plea of Caution from Russia - Vladamir Putin

41 Faith Leaders Say "No" to Bombing of Syria

Bashshar al-Assad, a Man Who "shows no signs of humanity, compassion, sympathy, or sentimentality"

Letter from the Speaker of the Syrian Parliament - published in the New York Times

I am against the US military intervention and I have my reasons, I , the son of this revolution - Khaled Khalifa

The Liberated Areas in Syria - Self-Organization

Freedom Fighters or Cannibals? - The Truth about the Syrian Rebels - The Independent (UK)

Associated Press - U.S. Public Not Shown Any Direct Evidence

Congressman Grayson - No Evidence Shown in Congressional Briefing

Letter to a Syrian Friend - Vijay Prashad

Analysis of Alleged Use of Chemical Weapons in Syria - Human Rights Watch - Sept.

Text of Obama's Resolution for War on Syria - As Open Ended as They Come

Syrian, Egyptian Revolutionaries Say "No to all forms of imperialist intervention, whether by the US or Russia"

Investigative Reporter Calls "Assessment" Dodgy - Robert Parry

Comments on the White House Assessment - Stanley Heller 8/31/2013

The White House Assessment on Syria - It Says it Has the Evidence

Liberal Kristof Wants War - New York Times

After Two Years Away from Syria - Reem Salahi

"Proxy War in Syria" - Video - Mairead Maguire July 9

The Fog of the Syrian Civil War - Omar Dahi 8/27

Neo-Cons Want Obama to Attack Syria - You'll Recognize the Names

The Chemical Attack - Sarabiany

Statement of the Syrian Revolutionary Left on the Chemical Attacks

from The Revolutionary Left Current in Syria, Hama-Salamyah Branch

The Syrian Revolution is Still the Fundamental Issue - Michael Karadjis

Rebels Take Town

Kill All Alawites and Other Minorities in Syria, says "Rebel", Including Children - Wall St. Journal

The "Angry Arab" Gives his Views on Syria

Qatar Ruler Bringing Libyan Weapons to Syrian Carnage

Iran to Send 4,000 Troops to Aid Assad

Bad Idea, Mr. President - Ramzy Mardini

Experts Doubt Claims on Chemical Weapons Use in Syria

12 Essential Articles about Syria Pro-Syrian Revolution

No to imperialist intervention in Syria! - Allan Woods

There are No Pure Revolutions, Just Revolutions - Syria Freedom Forever

Corporate Media and UN Acts as if All Syrian Casualties are Rebels and Civilians As'ad AbuKhalil June 13

Bahraini Activist al-Khawaja Expresses Support for Syrian Revolution and Opposes Sectarianism
(most of video is in French, but her talk near the start is in English)

Almost Half Syria Deaths May be Pro-Government Forces

Syria and the Middle East: Our Greatest Miscalculation Since the Rise of Fascism - Simon Jenkins

Peace Delegation to Syria led by Mairead Maguire

Syria's Inglorious Bastard about the cannibal video and other atrocities

Syria Atrocities - Government's Baniyas Massacre Highlighted

Syrian FSA has Right to Get Arms - Ceasefire Would be Best for Revolution

Statement of the Revolutionary Military Council in Damascus on the Israeli aggression - Syria Freedom Forever

Might Does not Make Right - Maysaloon, Syrian Arab Blog

Fareed Zakaria warns against American intervention - in Time magazine

A Petition "Solidarity with Syria"

"Nowhere in rebel-controlled Syria is there a secular fighting force" - Ben Hubbard New York Times 4/27

Thomas Pierret on Syria (Interview) April 25

US Foreign Policy Toward Syria and the Fertile Ground for Jihadi Recruitment As'ad AbuKhalil

U.S. Actively Helping Weapons Get to Syria - New York Times

Syria Mosque Bombing - comment - Stanley Heller

Desperate Syrians Marrying Off Daughters for Money to Survive

Swedish Journalist on Syria - Interviewed by As'ad AbuKhalil March 17

What You Can Do About Syria - Jackie Outka

What the Assad regime was and what it has become – Part One March 1

A Palestinian from Yarmouk Camp in Syria

The National Coordination Body for the Forces of Democratic Change (NCB)
In English

Deconstructing the Syrian Struggle - Johanna Rivera

New York Times Ignoring the Turkey An-Nusra Connection The Mideast Wire Blog

Journalist Takes Part in Interrogation of Prisoner and tells about it in "The Atlantic"

Lebanon’s Hezbollah steps in to help Syrians fleeing violence

Aleppo's Cold Winter - Glen Johnson La Monde Diplomatique - Jan. 4, 2013

Syria Rebels Gain Socialist Action U.S. January 1, 2013

Patrick Cockburn - "Syria is Many Conflicts Rolled Into One" - Dec. 30

How Long Can the Regime keep its Grip? Yusuf Khalil

Syria's Long Civil War - Glenn E. Robinson

The False Equation of Supporting Resistance and Authoritarianism in Syria - Issa Khalaf - Dec. 21

Head of new U.S.-backed Syrian coalition endorses al Qaida-linked rebel faction

Stalemate Stokes Anger at Rebels in Aleppo

Socialist Action (Britain) Imperialism steps up the offensive against Syria

International Viewpoint Sees "Deep Popular Revolution"

"When we Finish with Assad, We'll Fight the U.S." In Syria, Top Rebel Group Sounds Like Al-Qaeda

Syrian LCC Withdraws from Syrian National Council

Position Regarding al-Nusra - Syria Freedom Forever - November

Stop the War: There is no hypocrisy in our stance on Syria Lindsey German - Nov. 1

We condemn Israel. So why the silence on Syria? Jonathan Freedland - Oct. 19

Interview with member of the "National Unity Brigades"

Call for a Syrian Women's National Council - Oct. 16

A Way Out of Syria's Catastrophe - Jonathan Steele - Oct. 10

Imperialism Against the Syrian People - Fourth International Position Sept. 2012

Among the Alawites - Nir Rosen

Most Western Arms going to Jihadists (New York Times)

Secret Israel-Syria Peace Talks Involved Golan Heights Exit (New York Times)

“It is illusory to believe that Syria can be broken” Syrian CP via Granma

Daily Updates - Local Coordination Committees - Revolutionary Opposition

Syrian Arab News Agency - Official Syrian Government

Tyrant, son of Tyrant - As'ad AbuKhalil Sept. 24

Tariq Ali Give a Full Account of His Views - He Supports the Popular Uprising

Syria's Revolutionary Resilience

Jadaliyya article on Syria - Sept. 2012

Scorpion Gets in Among the Good Guys - Robert Fisk (blowback from Libya to Syria)

It's a Sunni Revolt against a Shi'a President - Najib Saliba

Build Networks of Popular Resistance - Gilbert Achcar August 25

Grassroots Mobilization in Syria - Andrew Pollack - August 7

U.S. Policymakers Think Syria Needs Al-Qaeda

An Answer to Richard Seymour - John Rees (August 1)

Richard Seymour on Syria's Rebellion

Support Syria Against U.S.-NATO - International Action Center

Response to Tariq Ali - Syria Freedom Forever - July 18

assad 2011 (154K)
Video- Tariq Ali: What is really happening in Syria July 2012

Divided They Stand - May

Syrian Activist Razan Zaitouneh: Assad Regime the Lone "Terrorist Group" Inside Syria DN! video

Human Rights Watch - Syria

The Syrian people are being sacrificed at the altar of US imperialism - Joseph Massad, Nov. 2011